In conclusion we have identified Ednra as a downstream direc
In conclusion, we have identified Ednra as a downstream direct target of Hoxa9 and Meis1. Upregulation of Ednra has a role in the progression of Hoxa9+Meis1-induced leukemia and targeting Ednra together with other chemotherapies may have therapeutic benefits for leukemia . Ednra inhibitors in the treatment of leukemia may help overcome the resistance to drug-induced apoptosis.
Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Swedish Cancer Society, Stockholm, Sweden (CAN2014/525), Västra Götalandsregionen, Gothenburg, Sweden (ALFGBG-431881 and ALFGBG-728151) and Assar Gabrielssons Foundation, Gothenburg, Sweden (FB15-34 and FB16-65). The authors would like to thank Ann Jansson for great assistance regarding transfection experiments and the staff at Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital for assistance with AML samples.
Introduction Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), especially in the event of the aneurysm rupture, is a serious cerebrovascular condition with high mortality and disability (Ansar et al., 2011). About 50% of patients die after acute SAH, and most survivors suffer from motor deficits, cognitive impairment, and low life quality (Mayer et al., 2002, Nieuwkamp et al., 2009). Both clinical and animal model studies have indicated that a subsequent development of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) following acute SAH could be one of major culprits adversely affecting the clinical outcome of SAH patients (Cenic et al., 2000, Zhang et al., 2013b). Patients with SAH have the highest risk of vasospasm within 5–7 days after SAH. Although angiographic evidence of vasospasm is present in 60–80% of SAH patients, approximately 32% of patients presents with symptoms (Bederson et al., 2009, Griffiths et al., 2001). Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the most serious complication of SAH and is usually defined as a new ischemic lesion detected by imaging examination. DCI is characterized by gradual decline of consciousness, or unexplained deterioration of fluvastatin sodium function. The decreased blood flow into brain tissue for CVS-induced vascular stenosis is considered a direct trigger of DCI development. Once it occurs, it is difficult to reverse. Microvascular vascular resistance in the brain is one of major factors influencing perfusion under physiological and pathological conditions including SAH and this resistance is subject to various biological modulations. Both nitric oxide (NO) (Pluta and Oldfield, 2007) and endothelin (ET-1) (Ohkita et al., 2012) play a critical role in regulating cerebral vascular resistance and ischemic brain injury but each exerts its biological action on microcapillary vessels in an opposite way. Endothelin (ET), with three isoforms ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, is a 21-amino acid peptide synthesized and secreted by vascular endothelial cells, myocardium and smooth muscle, etc. By binding to one of two major receptor subunits: endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR), ET-1 exerts its prominent vasoconstrictive action via ETAR (Kohan et al., 2011). Due to its potent vasoconstriction, excessive activation of the ET system leads to a detrimental effect on the cerebral blood supply to the brain areas affected (Iglarz and Clozel, 2010). In addition, a variety of neurological diseases such as ischemic brain injury (Patel et al., 1996, Bian et al., 1994); Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, impairment in spatial learning and reference memory (Palmer et al., 2012, D'Haeseleer et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013a); myocardial reperfusion injury (Tamareille et al., 2013) were all associated with ET-1 activation. Some findings from clinical and animal studies have demonstrated a significant increase in ET-1 levels in cerebrospinal fluid in SAH patients (Kastner et al., 2005, Kuruppu et al., 2014, Suzuki et al., 1990). ET-1 produces degenerative morphological changes in the vascular wall that are similar to those observed after SAH (Asano et al., 1990, Peltonen et al., 1997). Since most studies have focused on the contractile effects of ET-1 on vascular smooth muscle cells, and the investigation into the effects of ET-1 on the regulation of cerebral circulation, especially post-SAH, is scant (Feletou et al., 2012).